How To Setup UFW Firewall on Debian 11

Setup UFW Firewall on Debian 11

In this tutorial, we will show you how to setup UFW Firewall on Debian 11. For those of you who didn’t know, UFW (Uncomplicated Firewall), is the most popular and easy-to-use command-line tool for configuring and managing a firewall on Debian-based distributions. Ufw protects the server by monitoring the incoming and outgoing traffic of the network connections of a server.

This article assumes you have at least basic knowledge of Linux, know how to use the shell, and most importantly, you host your site on your own VPS. The installation is quite simple and assumes you are running in the root account, if not you may need to add ‘sudo‘ to the commands to get root privileges. I will show you through the step-by-step installation of the Setup UFW Firewall on a Debian 11 (Bullseye).

Prerequisites

  • A server running one of the following operating systems: Debian 10 or Debian 11.
  • It’s recommended that you use a fresh OS install to prevent any potential issues
  • A non-root sudo useror access to the root user. We recommend acting as a non-root sudo user, however, as you can harm your system if you’re not careful when acting as the root.

Setup UFW Firewall on Debian 11 Bullseye

Step 1. Before we install any software, it’s important to make sure your system is up to date by running the following apt commands in the terminal:

sudo apt update
sudo apt upgrade

Step 2. Installing UFW Firewall on Debian 11.

By default, UFW Firewall is available on Debian 11 base repository. So, now run the following command below to install UFW on your Debian system:

sudo apt install ufw

Once the installation is complete, now enable UFW (to start automatically upon system boot) and verify the status using the commands below:

sudo ufw status
sudo ufw enable

Step 3. Configure UFW Firewall Rules.

  • Default policies of UFW

Allowing rules is quite simple from the command line, and it is sometimes necessary. For example, by default UFW denies all of the incoming connections, which will make it a problem if you are using SSH. Therefore, you must create a rule which allows SSH connections using the following command below:

sudoufw allow ssh

Other rules may be added in the same way by simply specifying the name of the program. UFW comes with preloaded defaults for some commonly used programs, and they are automatically activated when you make a rule by specifying the name of the program. If we want to display the list of the applications then we will run the following command:

sudo ufw app list
  • Port Ranges

Port ranges may also be specified, a simple example for TCP would be:

sudoufw allow 2000:3000/tcp

and for UDP:

sudoufw allow 2000:3000/udp
  • IP address

An IP address may also be used:

sudo ufw allow from 111.222.333.444

Step 4. Install Graphical user interface for UFW firewall.

Those who are using Graphical Desktop Linux can install a graphical user interface for their UFW firewall called “GUFW” (Graphical Uncomplicated Firewall). Run the following command below to install it:

sudo apt install gufw

Setup UFW Firewall on Debian 11 Bullseye

Congratulations! You have successfully configured UFW Firewall. Thanks for using this tutorial for installing the latest version of the UFW Firewall on Debian 11 Bullseye. For additional help or useful information, we recommend you check the official UFW website.

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