How To Install Apache Hadoop on Ubuntu 16.04 LTS

Install Apache Hadoop on Ubuntu 16.04 LTS

In this tutorial, we will show you how to install Apache Hadoop on Ubuntu 16.04 LTS. For those of you who didn’t know, Apache Hadoop is an open-source software framework written in Java for distributed storage and distribution process, it handles very large size of data sets by distributing it across computer clusters. Rather than rely on hardware to deliver high availability, the library itself is designed to detect and handle failures at the application layer, so delivering a highly available service on top of a cluster of computers, each of which may be prone to failures.

This article assumes you have at least basic knowledge of Linux, know how to use the shell, and most importantly, you host your site on your own VPS. The installation is quite simple and assumes you are running in the root account, if not you may need to add ‘sudo‘ to the commands to get root privileges. I will show you the step-by-step installation of Apache Hadoop on an Ubuntu 16.04 Xenial Xerus server.


  • A server running one of the following operating systems: Ubuntu 16.04 (Xenial Xerus).
  • It’s recommended that you use a fresh OS install to prevent any potential issues.
  • SSH access to the server (or just open Terminal if you’re on a desktop).
  • A non-root sudo user or access to the root user. We recommend acting as a non-root sudo user, however, as you can harm your system if you’re not careful when acting as the root.

Install Apache Hadoop on Ubuntu 16.04 LTS

Step 1. First, make sure that all your system packages are up-to-date by running the following apt-get commands in the terminal.

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get upgrade

Step 2. Installing Java (OpenJDK).

Since Hadoop is based on java, make sure you have Java JDK installed on the system. If you don’t have Java installed on your system, use the following link to install it first. ~# java -version
java version "1.8.0_74"
Java(TM) SE Runtime Environment (build 1.8.0_74-b02)
Java HotSpot(TM) 64-Bit Server VM (build 25.74-b02, mixed mode)

Step 3. Installing Apache Hadoop.

To avoid security issues, we recommend setting up a new Hadoop user group and user account to deal with all Hadoop related activities, following command:

sudo addgroup hadoopgroup
sudo adduser —ingroup hadoopgroup hadoopuser

After creating a user, it is also required to set up key-based ssh to its own account. To do this use execute the following commands:

su - hadoopuser
ssh-keygen -t rsa -P ""
cat /home/hadoopuser/.ssh/ >> /home/hadoopuser/.ssh/authorized_keys
chmod 600 authorized_keys
ssh-copy-id -i ~/.ssh/ slave-1
ssh slave-1

Download the latest stable version of Apache Hadoop, At the moment of writing this article it is version 2.8.1:

tar xzf hadoop-2.8.1.tar.gz
mv hadoop-2.8.1 hadoop

Step 4. Configure Apache Hadoop.

Setup Hadoop environment variables. Edit ~/.bashrc file and append the following values at end of the file:

export HADOOP_HOME=/home/hadoop/hadoop

Apply environmental variables to the currently running session:

source ~/.bashrc

Now edit $HADOOP_HOME/etc/hadoop/ file and set JAVA_HOME environment variable:

export JAVA_HOME=/usr/jdk1.8.0_74/

Hadoop has many configuration files, which need to configure as per the requirements of your Hadoop infrastructure. Let’s start with the configuration with a basic Hadoop single node cluster setup:

cd $HADOOP_HOME/etc/hadoop

Edit core-site.xml:


Edit hdfs-site.xml:




Edit mapred-site.xml:


Edit yarn-site.xml:


Now format namenode using the following command, do not forget to check the storage directory:

hdfs namenode -format

Start all Hadoop services use the following command:

cd $HADOOP_HOME/sbin/

You should observe the output to ascertain that it tries to start datanode on slave nodes one by one. To check if all services are started well use ‘jps‘ command:


Step 5. Accessing Apache Hadoop.

Apache Hadoop will be available on HTTP port 8088 and port 50070 by default. Open your favorite browser and navigate to or http://server-ip:50070. If you are using a firewall, please open ports 8088 and 50070 to enable access to the control panel.

Congratulations! You have successfully installed Apache Hadoop. Thanks for using this tutorial for installing Apache Hadoop on Ubuntu 16.04 system. For additional help or useful information, we recommend you check the official Apache Hadoop website.

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r00t is a seasoned Linux system administrator with a wealth of experience in the field. Known for his contributions to, r00t has authored numerous tutorials and guides, helping users navigate the complexities of Linux systems. His expertise spans across various Linux distributions, including Ubuntu, CentOS, and Debian. r00t's work is characterized by his ability to simplify complex concepts, making Linux more accessible to users of all skill levels. His dedication to the Linux community and his commitment to sharing knowledge makes him a respected figure in the field.
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