How To Install Magento on Debian 11

Install Magento on Debian 11

In this tutorial, we will show you how to install Magento on Debian 11. For those of you who didn’t know, Magento is a free and open-source eCommerce platform based on PHP and MariaDB that is used by millions of small businesses to sell and manage their products online. Magento comes with a rich set of features including Website management, SEO, Order management, Customer service tools, Marketing tools, a Checkout system, as well as Payment and Shipping systems.

This article assumes you have at least basic knowledge of Linux, know how to use the shell, and most importantly, you host your site on your own VPS. The installation is quite simple and assumes you are running in the root account, if not you may need to add ‘sudo‘ to the commands to get root privileges. I will show you through the step-by-step installation of Magento CMS on a Debian 11 (Bullseye).

Install Magento on Debian 11 Bullseye

Step 1. Before we install any software, it’s important to make sure your system is up to date by running the following apt commands in the terminal:

sudo apt update
sudo apt upgrade
sudo apt install apt-transport-https ca-certificates gnupg2

Step 2. Installing Composer.

The installation of Composer is fairly easy and straightforward, now run the following command below:

curl -sS https://getcomposer.org/installer -o composer-setup.php
sudo php composer-setup.php --install-dir=/usr/local/bin --filename=composer

Check the Composer version:

composer -V

Step 3. Installing Elasticsearch.

Elasticsearch is not available in the standard Debian 11 repositories, now we add the Elasticsearch APT repository to your system:

wget -qO - https://artifacts.elastic.co/GPG-KEY-elasticsearch | sudo apt-key add -
sudo sh -c 'echo "deb https://artifacts.elastic.co/packages/7.x/apt stable main" > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/elastic-7.x.list'

After that, install the Elasticsearch package using apt commands below:

sudo apt update
sudo apt install elasticsearch

Start and enable the Elasticsearch service:

sudo systemctl enable elasticsearch.service --now

To verify and check if Elasticsearch is running, we can execute the following command:

curl -X GET "localhost:9200"

To view the system message that Elasticsearch logs on your system, type the following command:

sudo journalctl -u elasticsearch

Step 4. Installing the LAMP stack.

A Debian 11 LAMP server is required. If you do not have LAMP installed, Please read our previous tutorial to install LAMP Server on Debian 11.

Step 5. Configuring MariaDB.

By default, MariaDB is not hardened. You can secure MariaDB using the mysql_secure_installation script. you should read and below each step carefully which will set a root password, remove anonymous users, disallow remote root login, and remove the test database and access to secure MariaDB:

mysql_secure_installation

Configure it like this:

- Set root password? [Y/n] y
- Remove anonymous users? [Y/n] y
- Disallow root login remotely? [Y/n] y
- Remove test database and access to it? [Y/n] y
- Reload privilege tables now? [Y/n] y

Next, we will need to log in to the MariaDB console and create a database for the Magento. Run the following command:

mysql -u root -p

This will prompt you for a password, so enter your MariaDB root password and hit Enter. Once you are logged in to your database server you need to create a database for Magento installation:

mysql> CREATE DATABASE magento_db;
mysql> CREATE USER 'magento'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED WITH mysql_native_password BY 'your-stong-passwd';
mysql> GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON magentodb.* TO 'magento'@'localhost';
mysql> FLUSH PRIVILEGES;
mysql> \q

Step 6. Configuring Apache.

Now we create a new VirtualHost to better manage the Joomla:

nano /etc/apache2/sites-available/magento.conf

Add the following file:

<VirtualHost *:80>
     ServerAdmin [email protected]_domain.com
      DocumentRoot /opt/magento2
     ServerName your-domain.com

     <Directory /opt/magento2>
          Options FollowSymlinks
          AllowOverride All
          Require all granted
     </Directory>

     ErrorLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/your-domain.com_error.log
     CustomLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/your-domain.com_access.log combined

</VirtualHost>

Save and close, then restart the Apache so that the changes take place:

sudo a2ensite magento.conf
sudo a2enmod rewrite
sudo systemctl restart apache2

Step 7. Installing Magento on Debian 11.

First, we create an account at the magento.com website and navigate to https://marketplace.magento.com/customer/accessKeys/ to create an access key:

composer create-project --repository-url=https://repo.magento.com/ magento/project-community-edition=2.4.3 /opt/magento2

You will be asked for your username and password:

Username: YOUR_PUBLIC_KEY
Password: YOUR_PRIVATE_KEY

After that, start the installation by running the command below:

cd /opt/magento2

Before running the installation, you would want to edit the domain name, email address, and admin password:

bin/magento setup:install \
--base-url=http://your-domain.com \
--db-host=localhost \
--db-name=magento_db \
--db-user=magento \
--db-password=magento \
--admin-firstname=admin \
--admin-lastname=admin \
[email protected] \
--admin-user=admin \
--admin-password=ngadimin123 \
--language=en_US \
--currency=USD \
--timezone=Asia/Jakarta \
--use-rewrites=1

Please be patient with the installation process until it finishes, You should see the following output:

[SUCCESS]: Magento installation complete.
[SUCCESS]: Magento Admin URI: /admin_1iwnbd

We will need to change some folder permissions:

sudo chown -R www.data. /opt/magento2

Next, disable two-factor authentication using the following command:

sudo -u www-data bin/magento module:disable Magento_TwoFactorAuth
sudo -u www-data bin/magento cache:flush

Step 8. Configure Cron Jobs.

Magento requires its cron jobs to run to automate its important system functions. Now we create the following cron job:

sudo -u www-data bin/magento cron:install

Step 9. Installing an SSL certificate.

In this step, we will install the SSL (TLS) certificate. We will use a free Let’s Encrypt certificate that will work in all browsers and the CertBot application to install the certificate and keep it updated:

sudo apt install certbot python-certbot-apache

Next, run the certbot a command that will download the certificate and create the Apache configuration to use the certificate:

sudo certbot --apache

You will then be prompted to enter an email address for the certificate. After you have entered that you must agree to the T&C’s and decide if you want to share your email address with the Electronic Frontier Foundation. This last step is optional. Once successfully, Reload Apache again to load all the new configurations:

sudo systemctl reload apache2

Step 10. Configure Firewall.

Now we open ports 80 and 443 to allow Apache server traffic. We will do it with the following commands below:

ufw allow 80/tcp
ufw allow 443/tcp
ufw reload

Step 11. Accessing Magento Web Interface.

Once successfully installed, open your web browser and access the Magento web interface using the URL https://your-domian.com. You will be redirected to the following page:

Install Magento on Debian 11 Bullseye

Congratulations! You have successfully installed Magento. Thanks for using this tutorial for installing the latest version of the Magento eCommerce platforms on Debian 11 Bullseye. For additional help or useful information, we recommend you check the official Magento website.

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